More people are imprisoned in England and Wales than anywhere else in the EU, official statistics show.
Figures published by the Council of Europe show that England and Wales had an incarceration rate of 148.3 per 100,000 of population in September 2015.
That was more than 50% higher than France and nearly double the rate in Germany.
The highest incarceration rate across 45 European countries was recorded by the Russian Federation (439 per 100,000), with the lowest rates posted by the Netherlands and Scandinavia.
Last month justice secretary Liz Truss announced measures to reform prisons and cut reoffending rates.